Attack Vector: Is the way the attacker gains access to a target. The most common of these are malicious emails but many more exist and are discovered all the time.
BackDoor: Is a bypass allowing a Malicious user to connect to the target machine without permission from the target. These can be in the form of default username and passwords baked into the machine or a malicious download that opened a connection for the malicious user.
BlackHat: Is a term referring to a hacker who hacks for personal gain. The term refers to the old western movies where the good guy would wear a white hat and the bad guys would wear a Blackhat.
Banker: Refers to a malicious file that attempts to steal bank information from the user.
Downloader: Refers to a software that Maliciously downloads another file from the internet and then executes it.
Dropper: Refers to a software that has a malicious file residing inside of it which is extracted and then ran.
Mal-Spam: Or malicious-Spam Is a technique used by attackers where they send out emails pretending to be something you would expect to receive. This is a very common attack.